تدوین الگوی آموزش تفکر برای کودکان تیزهوش پیش از دبستان: پژوهش داده‌بنیاد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناسی ارشد روانشناسی کودکان با نیازهای خاص، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی کودکان با نیازهای خاص، دانشکده روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

10.22084/j.psychogy.2021.23510.2275

چکیده

هدف: هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، تدوین الگوی آموزش تفکر برای کودکان تیزهوش پیش از دبستان بود.
روش: این پژوهش، یک مطالعه کیفی با رویکرد نظریه داده‌بنیاد بود. در این پژوهش تعداد 70 کتاب و پژوهش داخلی و خارجی مرتبط با آموزش تفکر و کودکان تیزهوش پیش از دبستان با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند انتخاب شد و جمع‌آوری داده‌ها تا رسیدن به حد اشباع ادامه یافت.
یافته‏ها: یافته‏ها در سه سطح کدگذاری باز، کدگذاری محوری و کدگذاری انتخابی جمع‏آوری شد. در مرحله کدگذاری باز، 304 مفهوم از داده‌ها انتزاع گردید. در مرحله کدگذاری محوری، پس از مقایسه و ترکیب داده‌ها، 42 مؤلفه استخراج و طبقه‌بندی شدند. مقوله‏هایی که از نظر مفهومی دارای سنخیت یکسانی بودند براساس ماهیت و بار معنایی، ویژگی‏ها و خصوصیات مشترک و تناسب آن‏ها در کنار یکدیگر قرار گرفتند و در مرحله کدگذاری انتخابی با مرتبط ساختن طبقات اصلی و فرعی، یافته‏ها در 6 طبقه دسته‏بندی شدند.
نتیجه‌گیری: یافته‌ها نشان داد که در تدوین الگوی آموزش تفکر برای کودکان تیزهوش پیش از دبستان، 7 مؤلفه درباره چالش­های بنیادین در آموزش تفکر (شرایط علی)؛ 9 مؤلفه درباره سیاست‌گذاری‌های آموزش تفکر (عوامل زمینه‌ای)؛ 7 مؤلفه درباره موانع موجود در اجرای آموزش تفکر (مداخله‌گر)؛ 12 مؤلفه درباره توانمندسازی و ارتقای مهارت‌های شناختی، اجتماعی، عاطفی و هنری (راهبردها)؛ 7 مؤلفه درباره موفقیت‌های فردی، اجتماعی، عاطفی، تحصیلی (پیامدها) و 4 مؤلفه درباره فرایند آموزش تفکر به کودکان تیزهوش پیش از دبستان (پدیده محوری) مؤثر بودند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Developing a Thinking Teaching Model for Gifted Preschool Children: Grounded Theory

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Ahmadian 1
  • Ahmad Abedi 2
1 Master of Psychology of Children with Special Needs, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Child Psychology with Special Needs, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: The main purpose of this study was to develop a thinking training model for gifted preschool children.
Method: This research was a qualitative study with Grounded theory approach. In this study, 70 books and internal and external research related to teaching thinking and gifted pre-school children were selected by purposive sampling method and data collection continued until saturation.
Results: The findings were collected in three levels of open coding, axial coding and selective coding. In the open coding step, 304 concepts were abstracted from the data. In the axial coding stage, after comparing and combining the data, 42 components were extracted and classified. Categories that were conceptually of the same type were placed next to each other based on the nature and semantic load, common features and characteristics and their appropriateness. They were handcuffed in 6 floors.
Conclusion: The findings showed that in developing a model of thinking education for gifted preschool children, 7 components about the fundamental challenges in thinking education (causal conditions); 9 components of thinking education policies (contextual factors); 7 components about the obstacles in the implementation of thinking training (interventionist); 12 components on empowerment and promotion of cognitive, social, emotional and artistic skills (strategies); 7 components were effective on personal, social, emotional, academic success (outcomes) and 4 components were effective on the process of teaching thinking to gifted preschool children (pivotal phenomenon).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • intelligence
  • Thinking Education
  • Preschool
  • Grounded Theory
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