ارزشیابی توان آزمون‌های مبتنی بر نقشه مفهومی در جایگزینی آزمون‌های سنتی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری روانشناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

2 استاد، گروه علوم‌تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه علوم تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران

10.22084/j.psychogy.2021.21121.2109

چکیده

هدف: آزمون‌های سنتی برای سالیان متمادی موردانتقاد پژوهشگران حوزه ارزشیابی آموزشی بوده‌اند. در همین راستا نقشه‌های مفهومی نشان داده‌اند که علاوه بر اهداف آموزشی می‌توانند به‌عنوان ابزارهای ارزشیابی آموزشی نیز به‌کار روند، لذا هدف پژوهش حاضر ارزشیابی توان آزمون­های مبتنی بر نقشه مفهومی به‌عنوان یک رویکرد جایگزین برای آزمون‌های سنتی بود.
روش: جامعه آماری پژوهش را تمامی دانش‌آموزان سال اول رشته علوم تجربی شهرستان اسلام‌آباد غرب در سال تحصیلی 1397-1396 تشکیل می‌دادند. نمونه پژوهش نیز شامل دانش‌آموزان چهار کلاس (109 نفر) درس زیست‌شناسی سال اول مقطع متوسطه دوم بود که به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای انتخاب شدند. ابزارهای پژوهش شامل آزمون چهارگزینه‌ای پیشرفت تحصیلی، آزمون تکمیل نقشه مفهومی سلسله‌مراتبی، آزمون تکمیل نقشه مفهومی شبکه‌ای، آزمون ترسیم نقشه مفهومی سلسله‌مراتبی و آزمون ترسیم نقشه مفهومی شبکه‌ای بود. طرح پژوهش یک طرح ارزشیابی بود. روش‌های آماری شامل ضریب همبستگی پیرسون، ضریب کودر-ریچاردسون، آزمون t دو نمونه‌ای مستقل و تحلیل واریانس یک راهه (آزمون کروسکال-والیس و آزمون تعقیبی بنفرونی) بود.
یافته‌ها: نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که چهار آزمون مبتنی بر نقشه مفهومی از روایی محتوایی و پایایی بالایی برخوردارند. در زمینه روایی ملاکی چهار آزمون مبتنی بر نقشه مفهومی دارای مقادیر متفاوت همبستگی با یک آزمون چهارگزینه‌ای بودند. در زمینه روایی افتراقی، به‌استثنای آزمون ترسیم نقشه مفهومی شبکه‌ای، سه آزمون دیگر به‌خوبی از عهده تشخیص تفاوت بین نمرات دو گروه پیشرفت تحصیلی بالا و پایین برآمدند.
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که امکان استفاده از نقشه‌های مفهومی به‌عنوان ابزارهای ارزشیابی حداقل از لحاظ فنی وجود دارد؛ بنابراین ضروری است که مسئولان مربوطه در سیستم آموزش و ارزشیابی کشور نیز نگاه ویژه و متفاوتی به نقش کاربردی نقشه­های مفهومی در زمینه استفاده شدن به‌عنوان یک ابزار ارزشیابی جدید و جایگزین داشته باشند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation the power of concept map-based tests in replacing traditional tests

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sadegh Sayadi 1
  • Javad Mesrabadi 2
  • Ramin Habibi kaleybar 3
  • Abolfazl Farid 3
1 PhD in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran
2 Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Madani University of Azerbaijan, Tabriz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Aim: traditonal tests have been criticized by educational evaluation researchers for many years. In this regard, concept maps have shown that addition to educational goals can also be used as evaluational goals, so the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential of concept map-based tests as alternative tools to traditional tests. The statistical population of the study consisted of all first year students of experimental sciences in Islamabad Gharb city in the academic year 2017-2018. The research sample also included students of four classes (109 people) in the first of biology course in the first year of highschool who were selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling method.
Tools: Research tools included multiple choice test of academic achievement, fill-in a hierarchical concept map test, fill-in a network concept map test, construct a hierarchical concept map test, and construct a network concept map test. The research design was an evaluation design. Statistical methods included Pearson correlation coefficient, Kuder -Richardson coefficient, two independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA (Kruskal-wllis and Bonferroni post hoc tests).
Findings: results showed that four concept map-based tests have high content validity and reliability. In the field of criterion validity, four concept map-based tests had different values of​ correlation with a multiple choice test. In the field of discriminant validity, with the exception of the construct a network concept map test, the other three tests were able to distinguish well between the scores of the two groups of high and low academic achievement.
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that it is possible to use concept maps as evaluation tools, at least technically, Therefore, it is necessary for the relevant officials in the country's education and assessment system to have a special and different view on the practical role in using them as a new and alternative evaluation tools.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • evaluation
  • Concept map-based tests
  • Validity
  • Reliability
Amadieu, F., Tricot, A., & Mariné, C. (2010). Interaction between prior knowledge and concept-map structure on hypertext comprehension, coherence of reading orders and disorientation. Interacting with computers, 22(2), 88-97.
Arneson, B. T. (2005). On the role of concept mapping assessment in todayʼs constructivist classroom. Doctoral dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin.
CiprianSas, I. (1999). The multiple-choice concept map (MCCM): an interactive computer-based assessment method. Doctoral dissertation, University of Nevada, Las Vegas.
Dugosuy, B. (2012). Cognitive analysis of experts and novices concept mapping processes. Doctoral dissertation, Middle East Technical University.
Ekin, B., Ulcinar Sagir, S., & Saltan, F. (2016). The Comparison on Evaluation of Concept Map and Structured Grid with Multiple-Choice Test. Participatory Educational Research (PER), Special Issue 2016-II, 100-111.
Hung, C. H., & Lin, C. Y. (2015). Using concept mapping to evaluate knowledge structure in problem-based learning. BMC medical education, 15(1), 1-9.
Jonsson, A., & Svingby, G. (2007). The use of scoring rubrics: Reliability, validity and educational consequences. Educational research review, 2(2), 130-144.
Joseph, C., Conradsson, D., Wikmar, L. N., & Rowe, M. (2017). Structured feedback on students’ concept maps: the proverbial path to learning?. BMC medical education, 17(1), 1-9.
Kassab, S. E., & Hussain, S. (2010). Concept mapping assessment in a problem-based medical curriculum. Medical teacher, 32(11), 926-931.
Klein, D. C., Chung, G. K., Osmundson, E., Herl, H. E., & O’Neil, H. F., Jr. (2002). The validity of knowledge mapping as a measure of elementary students’ scientific understanding (CSE Tech. Rep. No. 557). Los Angeles: University of California, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST).
Ku, W. A. (2007). Using concept maps to explore the conceptual knowledge of technology students: an exploratory study. Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University.
Liping, Z., Yan, W., Boqing, D. & Zengyao, Z. (2009). The comparison study of Chinese and American secondary school students’ knowledge structure assessment technique - an experimental research based on concept map. Frontiers of Education in China, 4(2), 286-297.
Liu, X. & Hinchey, M. (1996). The internal consistency of a concept mapping scoring scheme and its effect on prediction validity. International Journal of Science Education, 18(8), 921-937.
Liu, T. C., Lin, Y. C., & Tsai, C. C. (2009). Identifying senior high school students, misconceptions about statistical correlation, and their possible causes: an exploratory study using concept mapping with interviews. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 7(4), 791-820.
Maker, C. J., & Zimmerman, R. H. (2020). Concept maps as assessments of expertise: Understanding of the complexity and interrelationships of concepts in science. Journal of Advanced Academics, 31(3), 254-297.
Mesa, J. C. (2010). The development and use of a concept mapping assessment tool with young children on family visits to a live butterfly exhibit. Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida.
Mesrabadi, J. (2008). Feasibility study of using concept map-based evaluations in high school biology. Ministry of education, Research and Curriculum Planning Organization, Curriculum Planning And Educational Innovation Research institute. (In Persian).
Mislevy, R. J. (2008). How cognitive science challenges the educational measurement tradition. Measurement, 6(2), 124-141.
Nasri, N., Roslan, S. N., Sekuan, M. I., Bakar, K. A., & Puteh, S. N. (2010). Teachers’ perception on alternative assessment. Procedia-Social and behavioral sciences, 7, 37-42.
Novak, J. D., & Gowin, B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Novak, J. D., Gowin, D. B. & Johansen, G. T. (1983). The use of concept mapping and Knowledge vee mapping with junior high school science students. Science Education, 67(5), 625-645.
Plummer, K. J. (2008). Analysis of the psychometric properties of two different concept-map assessment tasks. Doctoral dissertation. Brigham Young University.
Rice, D. C., Ryan, J. M., & Samson, S. M. (1998). Using concept maps to assess student learning in the sciences classroom: Must different methods compete?, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 35(10), 1103-1127.
Ruiz-Primo, M.A. & Shavelson, R.J. (1996). Problems and issues in use of concept maps in science assessment. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 33, 569-600.
Schmidt, H. J. (2006). Alternative approaches to concept mapping and implications for medical education: commentary on reliability, validity and future research directions. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 11(1), 69-76.
Schwendimann, B. A. (2015). Concept maps as versatile tools to integrate complex ideas: From kindergarten to higher and professional education. Knowledge Management & E-Learning: Special Issue on Novakian Concept Mapping in University and Professional Education, 7(1), 73-99.
Seif, A. (2008). Educational measurement, assessment and evaluation. Tehran: Doran publications, twenty seventh edition. (In Persian).
Snelson, L. J. (2010). Estimating the Reliability of Concept Map Ratings Using a Scoring Rubric Based on Three Attributes of Propositions. Doctoral dissertation, Brigham Young University.
Stoddart, T., Abrams, R., Gasper, E., & Canaday, D. (2000). Concept maps as assessment in science inquiry learning: A report of methodology. International Journal of Science Education, 22(12), 1221-1246.
Walker, J. M., & King, P. H. (2003). Concept mapping as a form of student assessment and instruction in the domain of bioengineering. Journal of Engineering Education, 92(2), 167-178.
Watson, M. K., Pelkey, J., Noyes, C. & Rodgers, M. (2016). Assessing impacts of a learning-cycle-based module on students' conceptual sustainability knowledge using concept maps and surveys. Journal of Cleaner Production. 133, 544-556.
West, D. C., Park, J. K., Pomeroy, J. R., & Sandoval, J. (2002). Concept mapping assessment in medical education: a comparison of two scoring systems. Medical education, 36(9), 820-826.
Woldeamanuel, Y. W., Abate, N. T., & Berhane, D. E. (2020). Effectiveness of Concept Mapping Based Teaching Methods on Grade Eight Students' Conceptual Understanding of Photosynthesis at Ewket Fana Primary School, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(12), 1-16.
Won, M., Krabbe, H., Ley, S. L., Treagust, D. F., & Fischer H. E. (2017). Science Teachers’Use of a Concept Map Marking Guide as a Formative Assessment Tool for the Concept of Energy. Educational Assessment, 22(2), 95-110.
Yin, Y., & Shavelson, R. J. (2008). Application of Generalizability Theory to Concept Map Assessment Research. Applied Measurement in Education, 21(3), 273-291.