مداخله شناختی مبتنی بر بازی زمان فکر کردن کیکو برای ارتقای مهارت‌های کارکرد اجرایی سرد کودکان پیش‌دبستانی در جهت گسترش مهارت‌های یادگیری اولیه برای آمادگی ورود به دبستان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

3 استاد گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

هدف: کارکردهای اجرایی به مجموعه توانایی‌های شناختی گفته می‌شود که به افراد امکان می‌دهد افکار و اعمالشان را در مواجه با موقعیت‌های جدید و پیچیده‌ای که پاسخ‌های خودکار و تکانه‌ای را می‌طلبد، کنترل کنند. هدف از این مطالعه، تأثیر مداخله شناختی مبتنی بر بازی نرم‌افزاری کیکو در جهت گسترش مهارت‌های کارکرد اجرایی سرد در کودکان پیش‌دبستانی و مقایسه دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل ازنظر مهارت‌های یادگیری اولیه برای آمادگی ورود به مدرسه بود.
روش: طرح پژوهش حاضر نیمه آزمایشی از نوع پیش‌آزمون-پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. برای مقایسه دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل پس از اتمام مداخله، از آزمون تحلیل واریانس استفاده شد. جامعه آماری این پژوهش کلیه کودکان پیش‌دبستانی شهر اهواز در سال تحصیلی 98-99 بود که از این تعداد به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای چندمرحله‌ای 204 نفر انتخاب و به‌صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل جای‌دهی شدند. بازی کیکو به مدت 35 روز در بازه زمانی (10-15 دقیقه‌ای) در گروه آزمایش اجرا شد. برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از پرسشنامه‌های کارکرد اجرایی سرد (ابزار برو-نرو، جعبه وظیفه، آزمون دسته‌بندی کارت‌های ویسکانسین) و آزمون ارزیابی آمادگی برای ورود به مدرسه براکن استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج آزمون تحلیل کواریانس نشان داد بازی کیکو بر بهبود مهارت‌های کارکرد اجرایی سرد (حافظه کاری-بازداری، انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی) در گروه آزمایش در سطح (001/0>p) مؤثر بوده است. همچنین، نتایج تحلیل واریانس با مقایسه دو گروه آزمایش و گواه ازنظر سازه آمادگی ورود به مدرسه مشخص کرد که گروه آزمایش نمره بالاتری در مهارت‌های اولیه یادگیری موردنیاز برای آمادگی ورود به مدرسه به‌دست آوردند. (آزمایش 25/17>56/10 کنترل)
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج به‌دست‌آمده از مطالعه حاضر می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که بازی نرم‌افزاری کیکو با افزایش مهارت‌های کارکرد اجرایی سرد در سن پیش‌دبستانی که مرحله حساس رشد این مهارت‌ها است در افزایش آمادگی ورود به مدرسه کودکان پیش‌دبستانی برای ورود به دبستان مؤثر است.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Game-Based cognitive Intervention (Kiko’s Thinking Time) to Promote Cold Executive Function to develop early learning skills for school readiness preschool Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fatemeh Farzadi 1
  • Nasser Behroozi 2
  • Manijeh Shahni Yilagh 3
  • Morteza Omidiyan 2
1 PhD Student in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
2 Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
3 Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Objective: Executive functions are a set of cognitive abilities that allow individuals to control their thoughts and actions in the face of new and complex situations that require automatic and impulsive responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kiko’s Thinking Time software game-based cognitive intervention to develop cold executive function skills in preschool children and to compare the two experimental and control groups in terms of basic learning skills for school preparation.
Method: The design of the present study was a pretest-posttest experiment with a control group. Analysis of variance was used to compare the experimental and control groups after the intervention. The statistical population of this study was all preschool children in Ahvaz in the 98-99 academic year, of which 204 people were selected by multi-stage cluster random sampling and randomly divided into experimental and control  groups. Keiko game was performed for 35 days at intervals (10-15 minutes) in the experimental group. Cold executive questionnaires (Go/No go Task, Box Task, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)) and Bracken School Readiness Assessment Test (BSRA) were used to collect data.
Results: The results of analysis of covariance showed that Keiko game was effective in improving cold executive functional skills in the experimental group at the level (p <0.001). Also, the results of analysis of variance by comparing the two experimental and control groups in terms of school readiness structure showed that the experimental group obtained a higher score in the basic learning skills required for school readiness. (Experiment 25/17> 56/10 control)
Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, it can be concluded that Kiko’s Thinking Time software game by increasing the cold executive functional skills in preschool age, which is a critical stage in the development of these skills, in increasing the readiness of preschool children to enter school. Elementary school is effective for entering primary school.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Executive function
  • game
  • cold
  • school readiness
  • Preschool
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