Comparison of Self-Regulated Learning Strategies and Implicit Beliefs of Intelligence in Gifted and Normal Second High School Students

Document Type : Research Article


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Arak University

2 Master of Science in Psychology


Objective: The present research was conducted with the aim of the comparison of self-regulated learning strategies and implicit beliefs of intelligence in gifted and normal second high school students.
Method: The research method of the present study was causal-comparative. The population was the gifted and normal second high school girl students of Borujerd city, that was selected 70 students of them for each of the two groups using the convenience sampling. The used instruments were Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and Implicit Theory of Intelligence Scale (IT IS).
Results: The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) indicated the significant difference in the linear composition of scores of dependent variables of gifted and normal students. Univariate analysis also indicated that gifted students had higher rate of cognitive strategies compared to normal students, but there was no significant differences between them in metacognitive strategies. They were also had lower entity beliefs of intelligence and higher incremental beliefs of intelligence.
Conclusion: Generally, in addition to the necessity for the more attention to the self-regulated learning strategies (especially metacognitive strategies) and implicit beliefs of intelligence in gifted students, the emphasis on improving these features in normal students also seems useful.


آرامی، زهرا؛ منشئی، غلامرضا؛ عابدی، احمد و شریفی، طیبه. (1395). «مقایسۀ باورهای انگیزشی، مهارت‌های فراشناختی و یادگیری خودتنظیمی دانش­آموزان تیزهوش و عادی شهر اصفهان»، رویکردهای نوین آموزشی، 11(2)، 70-59.
درتاج، فریبرز و افشاریان، ندا. (1395). «ارزیابی ساختار عاملی پرسشنامۀ راهبردهای انگیزشی برای یادگیری در دانش‌آموزان ایرانی»، فصلنامه اندازه‌گیری تربیتی، 6(23)، 43-23.
رسولی آزاد، شیدا. (۱۳۹۵). مقایسه معنا در زندگی، باورهای هوشی و انگیزش پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان دختر تیزهوش و عادی، دومین کنگره بین‌المللی توانمندسازی جامعه در حوزه علوم اجتماعی، روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، تهران، مرکز توانمندسازی مهارت‌های فرهنگی و اجتماعی جامعه.
زغیبی قناد، سیمین؛ عالی‌پور، سیروس و مرادی، مرتضی. (1396). «بررسی مدل علّی جنسیت و باور هوشی افزایشی با راهبردهای شناختی و فراشناختی با میانجی‌گری هیجان‌های مثبت تحصیلی در دانشجویان»، مطالعات آموزشی و آموزشگاهی، 6(17)، 120-97.
قنبری‌طلب، محمد؛ شیخ‌الاسلامی، راضیه؛ فولادچنگ، محبوبه؛ و حسین‌چاری، مسعود. (1397). «رابطه باورهای هوشی و بهزیستی مدرسه: نقش واسطه‌ای امید». دوفصلنامه راهبردهای شناختی در یادگیری، 6(11)، 115-95.
محبی نورالدین‌وند، محمدحسین؛ شهنی ییلاق، منیجه و پاشا شریفی، حسن. (1392). «بررسی شاخص‌های روان‌سنجی مقیاس نظریه ضمنی هوش (ITIS) در جامعه دانشجویی»، فصلنامة اندازه‌گیری تربیتی، 14(4)، 64-43.
نوری ثمرین، شهرام؛ برومندنسب، مسعود؛ فلاطونی، فردس و سراج خرمی، ناصر. (1388). «مقایسه باورهای انگیزشی و راهبردهای یادگیری خودتنظیمی در دانش‌آموزان تیزهوش و عادی»، یافته‌های نو در روانشناسی، 4(11)، 59-47.
یوسف‌زاده، محمدرضا. (1398). «رابطه بین خودتنظیمی با میزان یادگیری واقعی دانش‌آموزان دختر سال سوم دوره دوم متوسطه». دوفصلنامه راهبردهای شناختی در یادگیری، 7(13)، 132-119.
Abd-El-Fattah, S. M., Yates, G. C. R. (2006). Implicit theory of intelligence scale: Testing for factorial invariance and mean structure. Australian Association for Research in Education Conference. South Australia: Adelaide.
Al-Dhamit, Y., Kreishan, L. (2016). “Gifted students’ intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and parental influence on their motivation: From the self-determination theory perspective”. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 16(1), 13-23.
Berlin, J. E. (2009). “It’s all a matter of perspective: Student perceptions on the impact of being labeled gifted and talented”. Roeper Review: A Journal on Gifted Education, 31, 217-223. doi:10.1080/02783190903177580
Cheng, E. C. K. (2011). “The role of self-regulated learning in enhancing learning performance”. The International Journal of Research and Review, 6(1), 1-16.
Dai, Y. D., Swanson, J. A., Cheng, H. (2011). “State of research on giftedness and gifted education: A survey of empirical studies published during 1998–2010(April)”. Gifted Child Quarterly, 55(2), 126–138.
Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press, Taylor and Francis.
Dweck, C. S. (2002). The development of ability conceptions. In J. Eccles & A. Wigfield (Eds.), Development of achievement motivation (pp. 57-88). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Dweck, C. S., Leggett, E. L. (1988). “A social-cognitive approach to motivation and personality”. Psychological Review, 95, 256-273. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.95.2.256
Efklides. A. (2018). “Gifted students and self-regulated learning: The MASRL model and its implications for SRL”. High Ability Studies, 29, 79-102. doi:10.1080/13598139.2018.1556069
Grant, H., Dweck, C. S. (2003). “Clarifying achievement goals and their impact”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 541-553. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.85.3.541
Jackson, C. R. (2018). “Validating and Adapting the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) for STEM Courses at an HBCU”. AERA Open, 4(4), 1-16. doi: 10.1177/2332858418809346
Johnson, S. C., Dweck, C. S., Chen, F. S. (2007). “Evidence for infants’ internal working models of attachment”. Psychological Science, 18, 501-502. doi:10.1111/j.14679280.2007.01929.x
Makel, M. C., Snyder, K. E., Thomas, C., Malone, P. S., Putallaz, M. (2015). “Gifted Students’ Implicit Beliefs About Intelligence and Giftedness”. Gifted Child Quarterly, 59(4), 203-212.
Mueller, C. M., Dweck, C. S. (1998). “Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75, 33-52. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.33
Neber, H., Schommer-Aikins, M. (2002). “Self-regulated science learning with highly gifted students: the role of cognitive, motivational, epistemological, and environmental variables”. High Ability Studies, 13(1), 59-74. doi: 10.1080/13598130220132316.
Obergriesser, S., Stoeger, H. (2015). “The role of emotions, motivation, and learning behavior in underachievement and results of an intervention”. High Ability Studies, 26(1), 167-190.
Obergriesser, S., Steinbach, J., Stoeger, H. (2013). Emotional experience during participation in a program of self-regulated learning. International Conference on Talent Development & Excellence Congress. September 25-28 2013, Antalya, Turkey.
Pintrich, P. R., De Groot, E. V. (1990). “Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance”. Journal of educational psychology, 82(1), 33-40.
Risemberg, R., Zimmerman, B. J. (1992). “Self‐regulated learning in gifted students”, Roeper Review, 15(2), 98-101. doi: 10.1080/02783199209553476
Snyder, K. E., Barger, M., Wormington, S. V., Schwartz-Bloom, R., Linnenbrink-Garcia, L. (2013). “Identification as gifted and implicit beliefs about intelligence: An examination of potential moderators”. Journal of Advanced Academics, 24, 242-258. doi: 10.1177/1932202X13507971
Tan, D., Yough, M., Desmet, O. A., Preira, N. (2019). “Middle School Students’Beliefs About Intelligence and Giftedness”. Journal of Advanced Academics, 30, 50-37. doi: 10.1177/1932202X18809360
Tortop, H. S. (2015). “A comparison of gifted and non-gifted students’ self-regulation skills for science learning”. Journal for the Education of Gifted Young Scientists, 3(1), 42-57. doi: 10.17478/JEGYS.2015112017
Yeager, D. S., Dweck, C. S. (2012). “Mindsets that promote resilience: When students believe that personal characteristics can be developed”. Educational Psychologist, 47, 302-314. doi: 10.1080/00461520.2012.722805
Zimmerman, B. J. Schunk, D. H. (2004). Self-regulating intellectual processes and outcomes: A social cognitive perspective. In D. Y. Dai, R. J. Sternberg (Eds), Motivation, emotion and cognition: Integrative perspectives on intellectual functioning and development (pp. 323–350), Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2001). Theories of self-regulated learning and academic achievement: An overview and analysis. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (2nd Ed., pp. 1–37). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.