Effectiveness of Critical Thinking Strategies Training in the Questioning, Evaluation, Logical Reasoning and Problem Solving Abilities among High School Students

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD student in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran

2 Professor of Psychology Department, Faculty of Educational Sciences and Psychology, Tabriz University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Ardabil Branch, Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran


Objective: In advanced educational systems, attention to efficient and fundamental educational methods is the core educational goal and the evaluation of the effectiveness of these procedures is continuously conducted. Therefore, the present study aimed to design a critical thinking instruction program and determine the effectiveness of critical thinking instruction program in cognitive and behavioral outcomes in second year high school students.
Methods: The present study was conducted with a semi-experimental design (an unequal control group and pre-test-post-test). The study population included 11th grade female students in Tabriz city in the academic year 2021-2022. Using multi-stage random cluster method, two classes (30 subjects) were selected and one class was assigned as an experimental group and the other one as control group. For the experimental group, critical thinking strategies were taught during 10 sessions, and the control group did not receive any intervention. During pre-test and post-test, dependent variables were measured using Beck and J. Sapp's multidimensional questioning scale, activity evaluation form for California, Kember et al.'s logical thinking questionnaire, as well as Cassidy and Long's problem solving questionnaire.
Results: Data were analyzed by multivariate and univariate analysis of covariance. Results showed that critical thinking instruction program was effective in the improvement of the ability of questioning, logical reasoning, and problem solving in high school students (F=34.12, p<0.05). However, this instruction program was not effective in the ability to evaluate.
Conclusions: Hence, it can be concluded that cognitive skills, especially questioning, logical reasoning, and the ability to solve problems through systematic training program, could be changed and manipulated, and the systematic application of critical thinking could facilitate the attainment of these outcomes.


Main Subjects

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