The Effectiveness of help-seeking Strategies Training in the Improvement of Academic Stress, Performance and Motivation by the Moderating Role of Attributional Styles among Students

Document Type : Research Article



Objective: The present study aimed to determine the effectiveness of help-seeking strategies training in the improvement of academic stress, performance and motivation by the moderating role of attributional styles among students.
Method: Therefore, using multistage random cluster and screening methods, 60 students were selected from high school students in grade 2 in Tabriz five stricts. They were divided in two groups of internal and external attributional styles based on the cutt of point in Ratters attributional styles questionnaire and were assigned in 4 groups. They completed academic stress scale and assessment of academic achievement motivation. The training sessions were administered in 12 time.
Results: Results showed that by controlling the effects of pre-test, help-seeking strategies had a positive significant effect on the academic stress, performance and motivation as a combined variable regarding attributional styles (F= 2.54, p<0.05). Beside, attributional styles could moderate the effect of help-seeking training on academic stress and motivation, however, they could not moderate the effect of help-seeking training on academic performance. Results suggest that help-seeking training is effective in the improvement of academic stress, performance and motivation. Conclusion: On the other hand, attributional styles could moderate the effect of this method on academic stress, and motivation, while they have not a moderating role on academic performance.


پورافکاری، نصرت‌اله. (1373). فرهنگ جامع روان‌شناسی و روانپزشکی ج 1 و ج 2. تهران: انتشارات فرهنگ معاصر.
حبیبی­کلیبر، رامین. (1391). اثربخشی آموزش راهبرد خود تنظیمی کمک‌خواهی بر مؤلفه‌های حل مسأله ریاضی دانش‌آموزان با توجه به اثرات جنسیت و اهداف پیشرفت. رساله دکتری، دانشگاه تبریز.
شکری، امید؛ کدیور، پروین؛ نقش، زهرا و دانشور، زهره. (1386). «عوامل ایجاد کننده استرس تحصیلی و واکنش‌ها نسبت به آن عوامل در دانشجویان دختر و پسر». تازه‌های علوم‌شناختی، 8(4)، 40-48.
مصطفوی، محمد، (1387). روش‌های ایجاد انگیزه تحصیلی: مجموعه مهارتهای تحصیلی. تهران: انتشارات ورای دانش.
میکائیلی منیع، فرزانه. (1376). ادراک دانش‌آموزان از محیط روان‌شناختی کلاس و رابطه آن با پیشرفت تحصیلی، انگیزش درونی و اضطراب آنان. پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تبریز.
Aleven, V.; MC Laren, B. M.; Roll, I. and Koedinger, K. R. (2006). “To ward met cognitive tutoring: A model of helpseeking with a cognitive tutor”. International Journal of Artificial intelligence in Education, 16: 101-130.
Bandura, A. (2002). “Growing primacy of human a gency in adaptation and change in electronic era”. Europeam Psychologies, 7: 6-21.
Bernard, J. (2007). Gender effects in schooling. In C.F. Diaz(Ed.), Multicultural education for the 21 st century. New Yourk: Longman.
Bloom, B.S. (1970). Learning for mastery. Evaluation Comment, 1(2), Los Angeles: University of California.
Bruner, J. (1974). “From communication to language”. Cognition, 3: 255-287.
Butler, R. (2007). “Teachers achievement goal orientations and association's with teacher's helpseeking: Ex animation of a novel approach to teacher motivation”. Journal of Education psychology, 99: 241-252.
Carrol, J. B. (1965). School learning over the long haul. In J.D. Kumboltz (Ed.), Learning and Educational process. Chicago, Rand MC Nally.
Cassidy, S. (2000). “Learning style: and overview of theories, Models and measures”. Educational psychology, 24(4): 19-44.
Collins, W. and Sims, B.C. (2006). Help-seeking in Higher Education Academic Support services. In S.A. Karabenick, R.S. Newman (Eds), Help seeking in academic settings: Goals, group and contexts (pp, 259296). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Dambo, M. H. (1994). Appling educational psychology. Copyright by Longman publishing group.
Devonport, T. J. (2006). “Relationships between self-efficacy, coping and student performance”. Social behavior and personality. 34(2): 127-138.
Edwards, M. (2003). Increasing your child's motivation to learn Little Rock, AR: Center for Effective parenting.
Edwards, C.S. (2008). On the self- regulation of behavior. NY: Cambridge university press.
Hall, B. (2015). Educational psychology. New York, MC Grow /till press.
Karabenick, S. A. (2011). “Perceived achievement goal structure and college student help-seeking”. Journal of Educational psychology, 96: 569-580.
Karabenick, S. A. (2014). “Classroom and technology supported help-seeking: The need for converging research paradigms”. Learning and instruction, 21: 290-296.
Karademis, C. E. (2004). “The stress process, self-efficacy and coping styles”. Journal of personality and individual differences, 37: 1033-1043.
Linnenbrink, E. A. (2005). “The dilemma of performance- approach goals: The use of multiple goal contexts to promote student motivation and learning”. Journal of Educational psychology, 97: 197-213.
Mau, W. (1997). “Parental influences on the high Scholl students' academic achievement: a comparison of Asian immigrants, Asian Americans, and with Americans”. Psychology in the Schools, 34(3): 267-277.
Nelson Le Gall, S. (1981). “Help- Seeking: An understudied problem solving skill in children”. Development Review, 1: 224-246.
Nelson Le Gall, S. (1987). “Necessary and unnecessary help-seeking in children”. Journal of genetic psychology, 148: 53-62.
Newman, R. S. (2002). What do I need to do to succeed when I don't understand what I am doing? Developmental influences on student's adaptive helpseeking. In wig field & J. S. Eccles (Eds), Development of Achievement Motivation (pp, 283-309). San Diego, CA: Academic press.
Newman, R. S. (1990). “Children's helpseeking in the classroom: The role of motivational factors and attitudes”. Journal of Educations psychology, 82, 71-80.
Newman, R. S. (2006). Students adaptive and no adaptive help-seeking in the classroom: Implications for the context of peer harassment. In S.A. Karabenick & R.S. Newman (Eds), Help-seeking in academic setting: Goals, groups and contexts (pp. 225-296).
Newman, R. S. (2007). The motivational role of adaptive help-seeking in self-regulated learning. In D. Schunk & B. Zimmerman (Eds), motivation and self-regulated learning: theory, research and application (pp. 315-337).
Nigel, K. (2009). “Two ways to coping with stress”. Journal of American psychologists, 54: 291-307.
Pintrich, P. R. (2005). “Can learning envirnment be used as self- regulatory tools to enhance learning?”. Educational psychologists, 49, 341-357.
Roberts, G.C. (1992). Editor. (Motivation in sport and Exercise). Illinois: Human kinetics Publishers, Inc.
Ryan, A.M. and Pintrich, P.R. (1997). “Should I ask for help? The role of motivation and attitudes in adolescent's help-seeking in math class”. Journal of Educational psychology, 89: 329-341.
 Ryan, A. M.; Pintrich, P. R. and Midgley, C. (2001). “Avoiding seeking help in the classroom: who and why?”. Educational Psychology Review, 13: 93-114.
Ryan, K. E. and Ryan, A. M. (2005). “Psychological processes underlying stereotype threat and standardized math test performance”. Educational psychologist, 40 (1): 53-63.
 Ryan, A. M. and Shin, H. (2011). “Help Seeking tendencies during early adolescence: An examination of motivational correlates and consequences for a Achievement”. Learning and instruction, 21: 247-256.
Schunk, D. H. (2004). Self Efficacy in Education: Issuse and future directions. Paper presented at the annual metting of the American Educational Research Association, san Diego, CA.
Schunk, D. H. (2006). “Self- regulation and learning. In W.M. Reynolds & G.E. Miller (Eds), Handbook of psychology: Vol. 7”. Educational psychology, 59-78.
Skinner, E. and ZimmerGem Back, M. (2007). “The development of coping”. Annual Review of psychology, 58: 119-144.
Slavin, R. E. (2002). The international School: Effective elementary education for all children. In S. string field, D. Land (Eds), Educating at risk students (pp. 111-127). Chicago: National society for the study of Edcation.
Suroky, E. (2008). Understanding stress effects. New York: MC Grow Hill press.
Taconis, R.; Ferguson Hessler, M.G. and Broek kamp, H. (2001). “Teaching science problem solving: An overview of experimental work”. Journal of Research in science Teaching, 38: 442-488.
 Teong, S. K. (2003). “The effect of meta cognitive training on mathematical wordproblem solving”. Journal of computer Assisted Learning, 19: 46-55.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1960). The developmental of higher mental functions, quoted in J.V. wertsch. (1985). Vygotsky and the social formation of mindcambridge. Mass: Harvard university press.
Weiner, B. (1990). “History of Motivational Research in Education”. Journal of Educational psychology, 88(4): 616-622.
Zimmerman, B. J. (2003). “Acquiring writing revision and self- regulatory skill through observation and emulation”. Journal of Educational psychology, 94(2): 660-668.
 Zimmerman, B. J. (2008). “Investigating selfregulation and Motivation: Historical background, methodological developments and future prospects”. American Educational research Journal, 45(1): 166-183.