The Effect of Attention Strengthen and Perception of Sensory-motor Training Program on Mathematical Performance of Male Students with Mathematical Learning Disability

Document Type : Research Article



Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to determination of the effect of attention strengthen and perception of sensory-motor training programs on mathematical performance of male students with mathematical learning disability. Method: Study procedure was quazi-experimental with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of this study includes all third and forth grade elementary male students with mathematical learning disability in Shiraz city in the academic year 2014-2015.The sample size was 30 male students with mathematical learning disability that were selected by in available sampling method and assigned into experimental and group control, randomly. Such as each group consist of 15 students. Both groups were assessed pre-test. The experimental group received attention strengthen and perception of sensory-motor training programs in 10 sessions while control group did not. After completion of training period for experimental group the post-test was administered for both groups. Standardized tests of Iran Key-math mathematical test and revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children was used to collect data. Results: The data analyses by ANCOVA and MANCOVA showed that there were significantly improvement in mean scores of mathematical performance and its subscales in experimental group (P< 0.01). Conclusion: Therefore, attention strengthen and perception of sensory-motor training programs to improve the performance of students with learning disability in mathematics can be used and suggested that the school teachers in the process of learning and teaching, further they have notice to the capacity of attention and sensory-motor perception students have learning difficulties.


اهرمی، راضیه؛ شوشتری، مژگان؛ گلشنی منزه، فرشته و کمر زرین، حمید (1390)؛ «تأثیر آموزش دقت بر توانایی خواندن دانش­آموزان نارساخوان دختر پایه‌ی سوم ابتدایی شهر اصفهان». فصلنامه روانشناسی افراد استثنایی، 3(1): 140-152.
بخشایش، علیرضا و میرحسینی، راضیه. (1392)؛ «اثربخشی بازی‌درمانی بر کاهش علائم اختلال بیش فعالی/ کمبود توجه و بهبود عملکرد تحصیلی کودکان». مجله علمی پژوهشی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایلام، 22(6): 1- 13.
رجبی، سوران و پاکیزه، علی (1391)؛ «مقایسه نیمرخ حافظه و توجه دانش‌آموزان مبتلا به ناتوانی­های یادگیری با دانش‌آموزان عادی». مجله ناتوانی­های یادگیری، 4(1): 63-84.
شهیم، سیما (1383)؛ مقیاس تجدیدنظر شده هوشی وکسلر برای کودکان/انطباق و هنجاریابی، شیراز: دانشگاه شیراز.
شوشتری، مژگان؛ ملک­پور، مختار؛ عابدی، احمد و اهرمی، مرضیه (1390)؛ «تأثیر مداخلات زودهنگام مبتنی بر بازی‌های توجهی بر میزان توجه کودکان مبتلا به اختلال نقص توجه - بیش فعالی/ تکانشگری». مجله روانشناسی بالینی، 3(11): 1-11.
عابدی، احمد؛ ملک­پور، مختار؛ مولوی، حسین؛ عریضی، حمیدرضا و امیری، شعله (1387)؛ «مقایسه ویژگی­های عصب روانشناختی کودکان خردسال با ناتوانی یادگیری عصب روانشناختی/ تحولی و عادی پیش از دبستان»، پژوهش در حیطه کودکان استثنایی، 8(1): 1-18.
عابدی، احمد؛ پیروزیجردی، معصومه و یارمحمدیان، احمد (1391)؛ «تأثیر آموزش توجه بر عملکرد ریاضی دانش‌آموزان با ناتوانی یادگیری ریاضی»، مجله ناتوانی­های یادگیری، 2(1): 92-106.
عابدی، احمد و ملک­پور، مختار (1389)؛ «تأثیر مداخلات زودهنگام آموزشی - روان‌شناختی بر بهبود کارکردهای اجرایی و توجه کودکان با ناتوانی­های یادگیری عصب - روان‌شناختی». مجله رویکردهای نوین آموزشی، دانشکدهعلومتربیتیوروانشناسیدانشگاهاصفهان. 1(5): 65-86.
قره‌باغی، ثریا؛ محمدجانی، زهرا؛ سورتچی، حسین و بیگلریان، اکبر (1389)؛ «تأثیر تحریک حسی با استفاده از جلیقه وزین بر مهارت‌های حرکتی و توجه در کودکان مبتلا به اختلالات یادگیری». مجله توان‌بخشی، 2(12): 27-31.
کاکاوند، علیرضا (1386)؛ اختلال نقص توجه/ بیش فعالی، تهران: سرافراز.
لرنر، ژانت (2000)؛ ناتوانی­های یادگیری (نظریه­ها، تشخیص و راهبردهای تدریس). ترجمه عصمت دانش (1384)، تهران: مرکز چاپ و انتشارات دانشگاه شهید بهشتی.
محمداسماعیل، الهه و هومن، حیدرعلی (1381)؛ انطباق و هنجاریابی آزمون ریاضیات ایرانی کی- مت. تهران: سازمان آموزش‌و پرورش کودکان استثنایی کشور.
نریمانی، محمد و سلیمانی، اسماعیل (1392)؛ «اثربخشی توان‌بخشی شناختی بر کارکردهای اجرایی (حافظه کاری و توجه) و پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان دارای اختلال یادگیری ریاضی». مجله ناتوانی­های یادگیری،2(3): 91-115.
هارون رشیدی، همایون، جاهدیان­پور، فهیمه و عبده­پور، الهام (1389)؛ «اختلال­های یادگیری غیرکلامی». مجله تعلیم و تربیت استثنایی، 13(2):10-24.
هونجانی، اسماعیل (1386)؛ تأثیر آموزش دقت بر توانایی دیکته­نویسی دانش‌آموزان دوره ابتدایی دارای اختلال یادگیری در شهر اصفهان، پایان‌نامه کارشناسی ارشد دانشگاه اصفهان.
American Psychiatric Association (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Pub.
Annette, M. S. (2004). “Attention performance in young adults with learning disabilities”. Learning and Individual Difference, 35(1): 13-20.
Aro, T. and Ahonen, T. (2011). “Assessment of Learning Disabilities: Cooperation between Teachers, Psychologists and Parents”. Finland: Niilo Maki Institute, 71-130.
Barr, D. J.; Levy, R.; Scheepers, C. and Tily, H. J. (2013). “Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal”. Journal of Memory and
. 68(3): 255-278
Bates, D.; Maechler, M.; Bolker, B. and Walker, S. (2014). lme4: Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. Retrieved from package=lme4.
Bosse, M. L.; Tainturier, M. J. and Valdois, S. (2007). Developmental dyslexia: The visual attention span deficit hypothesis. Cognition, 104(2): 198-230.
Choelho, C. (2005). Direct attention training as a treatment for reading impairment in mild aphasia. Aphasiology, 19 (5): 275-283.
Hong, C. S., Howard, L., & Hume, C. (2002). Occupational Therapy in Childhood. Whurr.. London and philadelphia: Whurr Publishers.
Connolly, A. J. (1988). Keymath-revised: A diagnostic inventory of essential mathematics. Circle Pines, MN:American Guidance Service.
Connolly, A. J. (1998). KeyMath Revised, NU: A Diagnostic Inventory of Essential Mathematics. American Guidance Service.
Copeland, J. (2006). Parent and therapist perceptions of sensory based strategies used by occupational therapists in family-centered early intervention practice. Thesis for master of sciences in OT. Richmond,Virginia. Common Health University.
Cunningham, M. and Murphy, P. (1981). “The effects of bilateral EEG biofeedback on verbal, visual-spatial, and creative skills in learning disabled male adolescents”. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 14(4): 204-208.
De Luca, M.; Burani, C.; Paizi, D.; Spinelli, D. and Zoccolotti, P. (2010). Letter and letterstring processing in developmental dyslexia. Cortex, 46: 1272–1283.
Defever, E.; Go bel, S. M.; Ghesquiere, P. and Reynvoet, B. (2014). Automatic number priming effects in adults with and without mathematical learning disabilities.Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 4.
Fenger, T. N. (1995). Visual-motor integration and its relation to EEG Neuro-feedback brain wave patterns, reading, spelling, and arithmetic achievement in attention deficit disorders and learning disabled students. presented at the annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Neuronal Regulation, Scottsdale, AZ.
Fletcher, J. M.; Lyon, G. R.; Fuchs, L. S. and Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York: Guilford Press.
Fuchs, L.; Compton, D.; Fuchs, D.; Paulsen, K.; Bryant, J. D. and Hamlett, C. L. (2005). “The Prevention, Identification, and Cognitive Determinants of Math Difficulty”. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(3): 493-513.
Geary, D. C. (2010). “Mathematical disabilities: Reflections on cognitive, neuropsychological and genetic components”. Learning and Individual Differences. 20(2): 130-133.
Geary, D. C. (2006). “Role of cognitive theory in the study of learning of learning disability in mathematics”. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(4): 305-307.
Gersten, R.; Jordan, N. C. and Flojo, J. R. (2005). “Early Identification and Intervention for Students With Mathematical Difficulties”. Journal of Learning Disabilities. 38(4): 293-304.
Guyer, B. and Friedman, M. (1975). “Hemispheric processing and cognitive styles in learningdisabled and normal children”. Child Development, 46: 658-668.
Hartman, J. M., & Hunfalvay, T. (2001). Effect of attentional focus on learning the basic cast for fly fishing, Master's thesis, University of Virginia.
Hecht, S. A., Torgesen, J. K., Wagner, R. K., & Rashotte, C. A. (2001). The relations between phonological processing abilities and emerging individual differences in mathematical computation skills: A longitudinal study from second to fifth grades. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79(2), 192-227.
Huber, S.; Sury, D.; Moeller, K.; Rubinsten, O. and Nuerk, H. C. (2015). A general number-to-space mapping deficit in developmental dyscalculia. Research in Developmental Disabilities 43-44: 32-42.
Jacobs, E. H. (2005). “Neuro feedback Treatment of Two Children with Learning, Attention, Mood, Social, and Developmental Deficits”. Journal of Neurotherapy, 9(4): 55-70.
Jordan, N. C. and Hanich, L. B. (2010). Characteristics of children with moderate mathematics deficiencies: A longitudinal perspective. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 18: 213–221.
Kaufmann, L.; Mazzocco, M. M.; Dowker, A.; Von Aster, M.; Goebel, S.; Grabner, R. and et al. (2013). Dyscalculia from a developmental and differential perspective. Frontiers in Psychology, 4, 516.
Kirk, S. A.; Callagher, J. J.; Anastasiow, N. J. and Coleman, M. R. (2006). Educating Exceptional Children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Kuznetsova, A.; Brockhoff, P. B. and Christensen, R. H. (2014). lmerTest: Tests for random and fixed effects for linear mixed effect models (lmer objects of lme4 package) R package version 2.0-6. Retrieved from
Malhotra, Sh.; Rajender G.; Sharma, V.; Singh, T. B. and Bhatia, M. S. (2009). “Neuro-Cognitive Functioning in Children with Learning Difficulties”. Delhi Psychiatry Journal, 12(2): 276-281.
McCloskey, G.; Perkins, L. and Divner, B. (2009). Assessment and intervention for executive function difficulties. New York: Rutledge Press.
Meyer, M. L.; Salimpoor, V. N.; Wu, S. S.; Geary, D. C. and Menon, V. (2010). “Differential contribution of specific working memory components to mathematical achievement in 2nd and 3rd graders.” Learning and Individual Differences 20(2): 101-109.
Romani, C.; Tsouknida, E. D.; Betta, A. M. and Olson, A. (2011). Reduced attentional capacity, but normal processing speed and shifting of attention in developmental dyslexia: Evidence from a serial task. Cortex, 47, 715–733.
Sadock, B. J. and Sadock, V. A. (2007). Synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/ Clinical psychiatry (l0th ed.). New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Saskatchewan Learning (2004). Teaching Students with Reading Difficulties and Disabilities: A Guide for Educators. University of Saskatchewan, Regina, SK: Author, 1-239.
Shaywitz, B. A.; Shaywitz, S. E.; Pugh, K. R.; Mencle, W. E.; Fulbright, R. K. and Skudlarski, P. (2002). “Disruption of posterior brain systems for reading in children with developmental dyslexia”. Biological Psychiatry, 52: 101-110.
Steel, M. (2004). “Making the case for early Identification and Intervention for young children at for risk learning Disabilities”. Children Education Journal, 32(2): 75-79.
Stenneken, P.; Egetemeir, J.; Schulte-Korne, G.; Müller, H. J.; Schneider, W. X. and Finke, K. (2011). “Slow perceptual processing at the core of developmental dyslexia: A parameter-based assessment of visual attention”. Nneuropsychologia, 49: 3454-3465.
Sterr, A. M. (2003). “Attention performance in young adults with learning disabilities”. Learning and Individual Differences, 14: 125-133.
Träff, U. (2013). The contribution of general cognitive abilities and number abilities to different aspects of mathematics in children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 116, 139–156.
Van Der Sluis, S.; de Joung, P. F. and Van Der Leij, A. (2003). “Inhibition and shifting in children with learning deficits in arithmetic and reading”. Journal of Experimental, 16: 327-375.
Wolf, M.; Bowers, P. G. and Biddle, K. (2000). “Naming-speed processes, timing, and reading: A conceptual view”. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33: 387-407.
Yock, E.; Aquilla, P. and Sutton, S. (2003). Building bridges through sensory integration. 2th ed. Lazvegas: John Wiley& Sons. pp: 1-80.