The Game of Revolving Wheel of Academic Motivation and Engagement with the Heart of Students with Low Academic Achievement: Increasing Compatible Cognitions and Behaviors and Reducing Incompatible Ones

Document Type : Research Article


1 PhD student in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Khwarazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Khwarazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Objective: According to the literature, low academic motivation and engagement are considered as one of the most important factors of academic underachievement. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the multidimensional cognitive–behavioral intervention based on Martin's theory on academic motivation and engagement of students with low academic achievement.
Methods: In an experimental study using posttest-only design with a control group, 20 seventh grade female students with low academic achievement in Tehran were selected according to the inclusion & exclusion criteria and the clinical interview. Then they were randomly assigned to the experimental group and the control group. During the intervention process, the experimental group received academic motivation and engagement program and the control group received life skills training program for 13 sessions of 60 minutes. After the intervention, both groups responded to Martin's multidimensional Motivation and Engagement Scale−High School (MES-HS; Martin, 2011).
Results: The results of the multivariate analysis of variance showed that the implementation of multidimensional intervention caused significant changes in academic motivation and engagement of students with low academic achievement, and these significant changes were observed both at the general level and levels of the components.
Conclusion: The results of this study supported the influence of Martin's multidimensional intervention on students' academic motivation and engagement and documented the use of this program by educators and academic advisors in the educational settings.


Main Subjects

Ahmadian nasab, M., Hassanabadi, H.R., Sadeghi, M., & Mohammadkhani, Sh. (2020). Rebellion against destiny: Increasing strategic effort and sense of control through attributional retraining in probationary students. Journal of Clinical Psychology & Personality 18(2), 37-53. [In Persian] doi:
Akhlaghi, M., & Talepasand, S. (2015). The effectiveness of motivational-cognitive multidimensional interventions on task value, mastery goal orientation and academic self-efficacy. Journal of educational psychology, 36, 111-128. [In Persion].
Alidoosti, T. (2020). The effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction program on procrastination and academic buoyancy, exam anxiety and executive functions of female students. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Educational Psychology, Kharazmi University. [In Persion].
Asbaghi, M., Talebi, H., Abedi, A., & Manshaee, Gh. (2016). Normalization of Martin's academic motivation and engagement scale on secondary school girls of the second year in Tehran. International Conference on Management and Dynamic conomy of Iran, Malaysia [In Persion].
Astleitner, H. (2020). Alternative theoretical frameworks for educational interventions. In H. Astleitner (Ed.), Intervention research in educational practice: Alternative Theoretical Frameworks and Application Problems (pp. 19-37). Münster: Waxmann Verlag.
Atik, S. & Celik, O. T. (2021). Analysis of the relationships between academic motivation, engagement, burnout and academic achievement with structural equation modelling. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 8(2), 118-130.
Azemi K., Hassanabadi H.R., & Arabzadeh M. (2019). The Effectiveness of Attributional Retraining on Learned Helplessness and Attributional Styles in Students with Law Academic Achievement. J Child Ment Health, 5(4), 80-93. [In Persion].
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28, 117-148.
Bandura, A., Barbaranelli, C., Caprara, G. V., & Pastorelli, C. (2001). Self-Efficacy beliefs as shapers of children’s aspirations and career trajectories. Child Development, 72, 187-206.
Bishop, E. A. (2010). Motivation and its impact on the academic achievement of at-risk students. Graduate Research Papers, 144, 1-13.
Burnette, J. L., O’Boyle, E. H., VanEpps, E. M., Pollack, J. M., & Finkel, E. J. (2013). Mind-sets matter: A meta-analytic review of implicit theories and self-regulation. Psychological Bulletin, 139(3), 655-701.
Cerasoli, C. P., Nicklin, J. M., & Ford, M. T. (2014). Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: A 40-year meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 140(4), 980-1008.
Cerino, E. S. (2014). Relationships between Academic Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Academic Procrastination. Psi chi journal of psychological research, 19, 156-163.
Cohen, J. E. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Motivation, personality, and development within embedded social contexts: An overview of self-determination theory. The Oxford Handbook of Human Motivation, 85-107.
Eccles, J., Wigfield, A., & Schiefele, U. (1998). Motivation to succeed. In W. Damon (Series Ed.) & N. Eisenberg (Vol. Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 3. Social, emotional, and personality development (5thed. pp. 1017–1095). New York: Wiley.
Ghadampour, E., Mirzaeefar, D., & Sabzian, S. (2014). Investigating the relationship between academic engagement and dropout in first-year male and female high school students in Isfahan city. Quarterly Jornal of Educational Psychology, 34(10), 233-247. [In Persion]
Green, J., Liem. G., Martin, A. J., Colmar, S., Marsh, H., & McInerney, D. (2012). Academic motivation, self-concept, engagement, and performance in high school: Key processes from a longitudinal perspective. Journal of Adolescence, 35, 1111-1122.
Hamm, J. M., Perry, R. P., Chipperfield, J. G., Heckhausen, J., & Parker, P. C. (2016). Amotivation-enhancing treatment to sustain goal engagement during life course transitions. Motivation and Emotion, 40, 814-829.
Hulleman, C. S., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (2009). Promoting interest and performance in high school science classes. Science, 326, 1410-1412.
Krou, M. R., Fong, C. J., & Hoff, M. A. (2021). Achievement motivation and academic dishonesty: A meta-analytic investigation. Educational Psychology Review, 33(2), 427-458.
Lazowski, R. A., & Hulleman, C. S. (2015). Motivation Interventions in Education: A Meta-Analytic Review. Review of Educational Research, 86, 1-39.
Lee, Ch. S., Hayes, K. N., Seitz, J., DiStefano, R., & O'Connor, D. (2016) Understanding motivational structures that differentially predict engagement and achievement in middle school science, International Journal of Science Education,38(2), 192-215.
Liem, G. A. D., & Martin, A. J. (2012). The Motivation and engagement scale: theoretical framework, psychometric properties, and applied yields. Australian Psychologist, 47, 3-13.
Martin, A. J. (2020). Motivation and Engagement workbook (High School). Sydney, Australia: Lifelong Achievement Group.
Martin, A. J. (2005). Exploring the effects of a youth enrichment program on academic motivation and engagement. Social Psychology of Education, 8, 179-206.
Martin, A. J. (2006). The Motivation and Engagement Scale. Sydney, Australia: Lifelong Achievement Group.
Martin, A. J. (2008). Enhancing student motivation and engagement: The effects of a multidimensional intervention. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33, 239-269.
Means, B. (2022). Making insights from educational psychology and educational technology research more useful for practice. Journal of Educational Psychology, 57, 226-230.
Memarian, A.D., Abedi, A., Shooshtari, M., & Alipoor, A. (2015). The effect of Martin cognitive - behavioral multifaceted interventions on academic motivation of third grade female students. Journal of new educational approaches, 21, 121-142. [In Persion].
Mohammadkhani, Sh., Nouri, R., & Mootabi, F. (2017). Life skills (behavioral skills - for students). Tehran: Tolue Danesh. [In Persion]
Murphy, P.K., & Alexander, P.A. (2000). A motivated exploration of motivation terminology. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25, 3-53.
Nakhla, M. (2019). The Relationship between Fear of Failure, Academic Motivation and Student Engagement in Higher Education: A General Linear Model. PhD thesis. Department of Educational Research, Lancaster University, UK. 
Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W., & Perry, R. P. (2002). Positive emotions in education. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and challenges (pp. 149-174). Oxford, UK: Elsvier.
Pierson, I. (2019). Life skills for teenagers. Ghorbani, Z. Tehran: Sayehsokhan.
Hassanabadi, H.R., & Ahmadian nasab, M. (2019). A step-by-step guide to intervention in academic problems. Tehran: Academic Jihad of Shahid Beheshti University. [In Persion].
Pintrich, P. R., & DeGroot, E. (1990). Motivational and self-regulated learning components of classroom academic performance. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 33-40
Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Student goal orientation and self-regulation in the college classroom. In M. Maehr & P.R. Pintrich (Eds.). Advances in motivation and achievement: Goals and self-regulatory processes (Vol. 7 pp. 371-402). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Pintrich, P. R. (2003). A motivational science perspective on the role of student motivation in learning and teaching contexts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95, 667-686.
Pintrich, P. R., & Schunk, D. H. (2002). Motivation in Education: Theory, Research, & Applications. New Jersey: Johnson.
Rajaee, A., Nadi, M.A., & Manshaee, Gh. (2022). Investigation of the Efficacy of Motivational Educational-Attachment to School Package on Academic Aggression and Academic Performance among 10th Grade Female Students. Biquarterly Journal of Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 10(19), 66-81. [In persion]. doi: https://10.22084/j.psychogy.2022.24000.2296.
Ruban, L., & Reis, M. (2006) Patterns of self‐regulatory strategy use among low‐achieving and high‐achieving university students, Roeper Review, 28(3), 148-156.
Ryan, R. M., & Desi, E. L. (2000a). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 25(1), 54-67.
Samavi, A., & Najarpoorian, S. (2018). The Causal Relationship Between Internal Motivation, Academic Engagement and Academic Self-Regulation with Academic Performance mediated by Self-Directed Learning in High School Students in Bandar Abbas. Biquarterly Journal of Cognitive Strategies in Learning, 7(12), 47-68. [In Persion]. doi: 10.22084/j.psychogy.2018.15114.1682
Santos, A. C., Simoes, C., Cefai, C., Freitas, E., & Arriaga, P. (2021). Emotion regulation and student engagement: age and gender differences during adolescence. International Journal of Educational Research, 109, 101830.
Shojaa’ee Shemiraani R., Ebraahimzaadeh, E., Shafiq N., & Noroozzaadeh, R. (2021). Familial, Personal, and Educational Factors Affecting School Failure among High School Students: A Meta-Analysis. Quarterly Jornal of Education, 37(1), 33-52. [In Persion].
Skinner, E., Zimmer-Gembeck, M., & Connell, J. (1998). Individual differences and the development of perceived control. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63(2–3), i-vi, 1-220. (Serial No. 254).
Susman, E. J., & Rogol, A. (2004). Puberty and psychological development. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 15–44). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Usan, P., Salavera, C., & Murillo, V. (2020). Psychological Analysis among Goal Orientation, Emotional Intelligence and Academic Burnout in Middle School Students. Int J Environ Res Public Health, Nov4; 17(21), 8160.
Vu, T., Magis-Weinberg, L., Jansen, B. R. J., van Atteveldt, N., Janssen, T. W. P., Lee, N. C., van der Maas, H. L. J., Raijmakers, M. E. J., Sachisthal, M. S. M., & Meeter, M. (2022). Motivation-achievement cycles in learning: A literature review and research agenda. Educational Psychology Review, 34(1), 39-71.
Yu, Sh., Zhou, N., Zheng, Y., Zhang, L., Cao, H., & Li, X. (2019). Evaluating student motivation and engagement in the Chinese EFL writing context. Studies in educational evaluation, 62, 129-141.
Valiente, C., Lemrey-Chalfant, K., Swanson, J., & Resier, M. (2008). Prediction of children’s academic competence from their effortful control, relationships, and classroom participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 67-77.
Zamani, M., & Talepasand, S. (2017). The Effect of Multidimensional Motivational- behavioral Interventions on Achievement Motivation, Academic Performance and Motivation of 7th grade students. Journal of New Educational Approaches, 12(1), 92-109. [In Persion].