Meta-Analysis of Gender Differences in Metacognition and its Components

Document Type : Research Article


1 Master's degree in Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

2 Professor of Educational Psychology Department, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University , Tabriz, Iran


Objective: During the last three decades, researchers have investigated gender differences in metacognition, and many of their results have been contradictory; Therefore, it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis in order to achieve a comprehensive result in this field. In this regard, the aim of the current research is to combine the results obtained in this field.
Method: The method used in this research is meta-analysis. The statistical population was all the researches published in the country between 991-2021. After reviewing the primary studies, 350 effect sizes from 128 selected studies were included in the analysis process. In order to collect information, Mesrabadi checklist (2015), combined effect size with two fixed and random effects models, funnel plot, sensitivity analysis, regression and CMA2 and SPSS22 software were used. In this research, Hedges g index was used among the types of d indices.
Results: Data analysis showed that the overall effect size is -0.018 in the fixed model and -0.022 in the random model. Considering the heterogeneity of the effect sizes, sub-components and moderating variable (age) were analyzed. The results showed that the difference obtained in the total metacognition index and its various components, according to the interpretation of Cohen's d criterion, is lower than the small level.
Conclusion: As a result, there was no difference between girls and boys in the overall metacognition index and its components. Also, the age of the subjects did not play the role of a moderating variable on the relationship between metacognition and gender.


Main Subjects

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